Monday, June 23, 2008

Types of Trojan horse payloads

Trojan horse payloads are almost always designed to do various harmful things, but can also be harmless. They are broken down in classification based on how they breach and damage systems. The six main types of Trojan horse payloads are:

* Remote Access
* Data Destruction
* Downloader
* Server Trojan(Proxy, FTP , IRC, Email, HTTP/HTTPS, etc.)
* Security software disabler
* Denial-of-service attack (DoS)

Some examples of damage are:

* Erasing or overwriting data on a computer
* Encrypting files in a cryptoviral extortion attack
* Corrupting files in a subtle way
* Upload and download files
* Copying fake links, which lead to false websites, chats, or other account based websites, showing any local account name on the computer falsely engaging in untrue context
* Showing fake downloads of software movies, games, porn videos and porn websites, that you did not download nor go on.
* Allowing remote access to the victim's computer. This is called a RAT (remote access trojan)
* Spreading other malware, such as viruses: this type of Trojan horse is called a 'dropper' or 'vector'
* Setting up networks of zombie computers in order to launch DDoS attacks or send spam.
* Spying on the user of a computer and covertly reporting data like browsing habits to other people (see the article on spyware)
* Making screenshots
* Logging keystrokes to steal information such as passwords and credit card numbers
* Phishing for bank or other account details, which can be used for criminal activities
* Installing a backdoor on a computer system
* Opening and closing CD-ROM tray
* Playing sounds, videos or displaying images.
* Calling using the modem to expensive numbers, thus causing massive phone bills.
* Harvesting e-mail addresses and using them for spam
* Restarting the computer whenever the infected program is started
* Deactivating or interfering with anti-virus and firewall programs
* Deactivating or interfering with other competing forms of malware
* Randomly shutting off the computer
* A virus

Monday, June 16, 2008

E-mail spam

E-mail spam, also known as "bulk e-mail" or "junk e-mail," is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. A common synonym for spam is unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. "UCE" refers specifically to "unsolicited commercial e-mail."

E-mail spam slowly but exponentially grew for several decades to several billion messages a day. Spam has frustrated, confused, and annoyed e-mail users. Laws against spam have been sporadically implemented, with some being opt-out and others requiring opt in e-mail. The total volume of spam (over 100 billion emails per day as of April 2008) has leveled off slightly in recent years, and is no longer growing exponentially. The amount received by most e-mail users has decreased, mostly because of better filtering. About 80% of all spam is sent by fewer than 200 spammers. Botnets, networks of virus-infected computers, are used to send about 80% of spam. The cost of spam is borne mostly by the recipient, so it is a form of postage due advertising.

Wednesday, June 11, 2008


A roboticist designs, builds, programs, and experiments with robots. Since robotics is a highly interdisciplinary field, roboticists often have backgrounds in a number of disciplines including computer science, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer engineering. Roboticists often work for university, industry, and government research labs, but may also work for startup companies and other entrepreneurial firms. Amateur Roboticist is also a growing hobby all over the world.

Monday, June 02, 2008


Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of complex systems, especially communication processes, control mechanisms and feedback principles. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory.

Example of cybernetic thinking. On the one hand a company is approached as a system in an environment. On the other hand cybernetic factory can be modeled as a control system.

Example of cybernetic thinking. On the one hand a company is approached as a system in an environment. On the other hand cybernetic factory can be modeled as a control system.

Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology and neuroscience in the 1940s.

Other fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, and architecture.